Lightness vs Darkness: Motifs to show Martin Luther is on the side of Light While the Papacy were on the side of Darkness

Keywords: good shepherd, doctrine of justification, Martin Luther, Protestant Reformation In Lutheran prints, the symbolic use of light and dark highlighted the boundaries between good and evil, God and the Devil. This motif was derived from the bible, in the words of Jesus: ‘I am the light of the world. Whoever follows me will never… Continue reading Lightness vs Darkness: Motifs to show Martin Luther is on the side of Light While the Papacy were on the side of Darkness

Using Interactive Prints in Reformation Polemical Prints

Keywords: volvelle, Reformation, Wheel of Fortune, false piety, Peace of Augsburg In 1556, Hans Rudolf Manuel Deutsch (1525–1571) designed an interactive and satirical woodcut in 1556 using a volvelle with the title: Die wechselnden Gesichter der Kirche (‘The Changing Faces of the Church’). Another volvelle, with a similar image, was printed in 1620. A volvelle… Continue reading Using Interactive Prints in Reformation Polemical Prints

Satirical Animal-Headed Portrayals of Martin Luther’s Theological Opponents

Keywords: Martin Luther, anti-Catholic polemic, Catholic Church, Greed It was only from the threat of excommunication of Martin Luther with the publishing of the papal bull Exsurge Domine (‘Arise, O Lord’), that condemned 41 of his propositions, did a systematic Protestant campaign start in the early 1520s (Füssel, 2005, p. 167; Holborn, 1965, p. 147).… Continue reading Satirical Animal-Headed Portrayals of Martin Luther’s Theological Opponents

Protestant Princes against the Papal Beasts from Rome

Keywords: Reformation, Religious Wars, Protestant Schmalkaldic League, Lucas Cranach the Younger, Johann Friedrich I When Martin Luther died in 1546, the Lutheran electors, princes and dukes took the role of the defenders of the reformed Church. They were depicted as knights fighting against the papal beasts from Rome. The papacy were depicted as monstrous beasts… Continue reading Protestant Princes against the Papal Beasts from Rome

The Monster of Cracow: Monstrous Births as Portents during the Reformation

Keywords: Early Modern Monstrous Births, Signs and Portents, Prophesies, Reformation The monstrous birth resembling a demon with faces embedded in its body become known as the Monster of Cracow, after its birthplace in 1547. The image of the monstrous birth was reproduced in multiple prints. It appeared in Jacob Rüeff’s (1500-1558) De conceptu et generatione… Continue reading The Monster of Cracow: Monstrous Births as Portents during the Reformation