How did people transform into werewolves: from antiquity to popular culture today

Keywords: Arcadia mythology, Jean Bodin demonology, Ovid’s Metamorphoses, Petter Stump (Peter Stumpp, Peter Stump), Gilles Garnier Ancient GreeceOne of the earliest werewolf fables originated from the ancient festival of Zeus in Arcadia, Greece. Participants would choose a piece of meat from a mixture of both animal and human sacrifices. Those who unwittingly chose and ate… Continue reading How did people transform into werewolves: from antiquity to popular culture today

The Werewolf Debate: How Pre-Modern Thinkers Debated the belief in Werewolves

Keywords: metamorphoses, werewolves, witchcraft, Malleus Maleficarum, Johann Weyer, Jean Bodin Scepticism existed in the ability of man to transform into wolves in antiquity as stated in Pliny’s Historia naturalis in c.77A.D (Pliny, 1962, p. 95). However, it did not become the subject of wide debate until early Christian saints such as Saint Ambrose (339-397), Saint… Continue reading The Werewolf Debate: How Pre-Modern Thinkers Debated the belief in Werewolves

Demons of David Teniers the Younger’s Alchemists

Keywords: Alchemy, David Teniers the Younger, devil and demons, The Temptations of St. Anthony Alchemy was resisted by both the Catholic and Protestant Church. Protestant reformers in northern Netherlands dealt with the threat by declaring magic as false and inefficacious as the true God could not be manipulated into revealing his secrets of nature (Tambiah,… Continue reading Demons of David Teniers the Younger’s Alchemists

Witches in Sixteenth-Century Germany: The belief in witches, what they were accused of and why

Keywords: Malleus Maleficarum, infanticide, metamorphosis, witchcraft, Witchcraft in sixteenth century, What caused the witch craze in Europe, Witch hunt in Europe, Witch trials Early modern Europe is known for its climate of fear as highlighted by the moral panics surrounding the witch trials (Roberts and Naphy, 1997, p. 1). Repeated war and death from disease… Continue reading Witches in Sixteenth-Century Germany: The belief in witches, what they were accused of and why

Lightness vs Darkness: Motifs to show Martin Luther is on the side of Light While the Papacy were on the side of Darkness

Keywords: good shepherd, doctrine of justification, Martin Luther, Protestant Reformation In Lutheran prints, the symbolic use of light and dark highlighted the boundaries between good and evil, God and the Devil. This motif was derived from the bible, in the words of Jesus: ‘I am the light of the world. Whoever follows me will never… Continue reading Lightness vs Darkness: Motifs to show Martin Luther is on the side of Light While the Papacy were on the side of Darkness