Jesuits Portrayed with Dog-Heads in Protestant Polemical Prints

Keywords: Jesuits, Dominicans, Martin Luther, Reformation, Order of Jesus, Counter-Reformation The Jesuits became an especial target in the Protestant polemical campaign as they became a significant and influential order of the Catholic Church, particularly during the Counter-Reformation period. While artists used various animals to mock the Catholic clergy, the dog and the wolf were popular,… Continue reading Jesuits Portrayed with Dog-Heads in Protestant Polemical Prints

Rise of Nationalism and the Othering of Perceived Outsiders in Sixteenth-Century Germany

Keywords: Nationalism, anti-Roman, Humanists, Conrad Celtis, Protestant Reformation Updated 1 June 2022 ‘Germany’ vs The Holy Roman EmpireContention surrounds the use of ‘Germany’ during the sixteenth century at a time when the German state did not exist but was instead a part of the Holy Roman Empire. While the German state did not exist during… Continue reading Rise of Nationalism and the Othering of Perceived Outsiders in Sixteenth-Century Germany

What was the Protestant Reformation?

Keywords: Reformation, Martin Luther (1483-1546), Lutheran, Protestant, Ninety-five theses Socio-Cultural Background Roman historian Cornelius Tacitus’ (56–117 A.D.) Germania, (first printed in German in 1473 in Nuremberg), enabled the Germanic people to rediscover their cultural identity without influence from foreign powers (Krebs, 2011, p. 17; Hughes, 1992, p. 20; Morris, 2002, p. 58. For an English… Continue reading What was the Protestant Reformation?

The World Turned Upside-Down: Christ’s Sheep Against the Papal Wolves of Rome

Keywords: Reformation Propaganda, Catholic clergy, wolf hunt, demons, evangelists, papal greed, Making comparisons between people and animals by portraying them as animals or with the heads of animals was used as a Propagandists tool during the Protestant Reformation. Protestant propaganda employed the greedy canine motif to represent the Catholic clergy in opposition to Christian ideals… Continue reading The World Turned Upside-Down: Christ’s Sheep Against the Papal Wolves of Rome

Lightness vs Darkness: Motifs to show Martin Luther is on the side of Light While the Papacy were on the side of Darkness

Keywords: good shepherd, doctrine of justification, Martin Luther, Protestant Reformation In Lutheran prints, the symbolic use of light and dark highlighted the boundaries between good and evil, God and the Devil. This motif was derived from the bible, in the words of Jesus: ‘I am the light of the world. Whoever follows me will never… Continue reading Lightness vs Darkness: Motifs to show Martin Luther is on the side of Light While the Papacy were on the side of Darkness