Dog-Pig Hybrids and the Heretical Teachings of the Jesuits during the Counter Reformation

Keywords: Jesuits, Peter (or Petrus) Canisius, Martin Eisengrein, Judensau (‘Jewish sow’), dog-pig hybrids, Reformation Updated: 05.10.2022 The act of revelation was explored in Protestant Reformation prints to demonstrate that the Catholic Church were something more sinister than what they externally portrayed. In this way, their outward, physical appearance from their tonsured haircut to their clerical… Continue reading Dog-Pig Hybrids and the Heretical Teachings of the Jesuits during the Counter Reformation

Monstrous Births and their Uses in Sixteenth Century Germany

Keywords: Monstrous Births, Portent, Omen, German Reformation, Martin Luther, Monster of Cracow Interest grew in monstrous births out of the printing press, where accounts of monstrous births were promptly reported and spread widely (Bates, 2005, p. 15). The prints also had a ready market that had already seen images of wonders such as monstrous races.… Continue reading Monstrous Births and their Uses in Sixteenth Century Germany

Jesuits Portrayed with Dog-Heads in Protestant Polemical Prints

Keywords: Jesuits, Dominicans, Martin Luther, Reformation, Order of Jesus, Counter-Reformation The Jesuits became an especial target in the Protestant polemical campaign as they became a significant and influential order of the Catholic Church, particularly during the Counter-Reformation period. While artists used various animals to mock the Catholic clergy, the dog and the wolf were popular,… Continue reading Jesuits Portrayed with Dog-Heads in Protestant Polemical Prints

Rise of Nationalism and the Othering of Perceived Outsiders in Sixteenth-Century Germany

Keywords: Nationalism, anti-Roman, Humanists, Conrad Celtis, Protestant Reformation Updated 1 June 2022 ‘Germany’ vs The Holy Roman EmpireContention surrounds the use of ‘Germany’ during the sixteenth century at a time when the German state did not exist but was instead a part of the Holy Roman Empire. While the German state did not exist during… Continue reading Rise of Nationalism and the Othering of Perceived Outsiders in Sixteenth-Century Germany

What was the Protestant Reformation?

Keywords: Reformation, Martin Luther (1483-1546), Lutheran, Protestant, Ninety-five theses Socio-Cultural Background Roman historian Cornelius Tacitus’ (56–117 A.D.) Germania, (first printed in German in 1473 in Nuremberg), enabled the Germanic people to rediscover their cultural identity without influence from foreign powers (Krebs, 2011, p. 17; Hughes, 1992, p. 20; Morris, 2002, p. 58. For an English… Continue reading What was the Protestant Reformation?