Was Lucas Cranach’s ‘Werewolf’ really a Depiction of a Werewolf?

Keywords: Werewolf, Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472-1553), vagrants, criminals, wilderness The single-leaf woodcut by Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472-1553), commonly entitled Werewolf (c.1510-1512), encapsulated the fears surrounding people who resided in the land of the wolf. The print portrays a disheveled man with torn clothes, shoeless, and unkempt hair on all limbs. He appears to… Continue reading Was Lucas Cranach’s ‘Werewolf’ really a Depiction of a Werewolf?

How did people transform into werewolves: from antiquity to popular culture today

Keywords: Arcadia mythology, Jean Bodin demonology, Ovid’s Metamorphoses, Petter Stump (Peter Stumpp, Peter Stump), Gilles Garnier Ancient GreeceOne of the earliest werewolf fables originated from the ancient festival of Zeus in Arcadia, Greece. Participants would choose a piece of meat from a mixture of both animal and human sacrifices. Those who unwittingly chose and ate… Continue reading How did people transform into werewolves: from antiquity to popular culture today

Rise of Nationalism and the Othering of Perceived Outsiders in Sixteenth-Century Germany

Keywords: Nationalism, anti-Roman, Humanists, Conrad Celtis, Protestant Reformation Updated 1 June 2022 ‘Germany’ vs The Holy Roman EmpireContention surrounds the use of ‘Germany’ during the sixteenth century at a time when the German state did not exist but was instead a part of the Holy Roman Empire. While the German state did not exist during… Continue reading Rise of Nationalism and the Othering of Perceived Outsiders in Sixteenth-Century Germany

Fear of Wolves in Sixteenth-Century Germany

Keywords: werewolves, Johannes Geiler of Kayserberg, Olaus Magnus, rabies, fatalities From 1570, Europe experienced a ‘little ice age’ that brought harsher winters and wetter summers, resulting in failed crops and outbreaks of disease (Soergel, 2012, p. 24; Bailey, 2013, p. 161). The ice age froze rivers which enabled wolves to travel while impeding traffic for… Continue reading Fear of Wolves in Sixteenth-Century Germany

The Werewolf Debate: How Pre-Modern Thinkers Debated the belief in Werewolves

Keywords: metamorphoses, werewolves, witchcraft, Malleus Maleficarum, Johann Weyer, Jean Bodin Scepticism existed in the ability of man to transform into wolves in antiquity as stated in Pliny’s Historia naturalis in c.77A.D (Pliny, 1962, p. 95). However, it did not become the subject of wide debate until early Christian saints such as Saint Ambrose (339-397), Saint… Continue reading The Werewolf Debate: How Pre-Modern Thinkers Debated the belief in Werewolves